RAGO - RAG OpenAPI Framework


RAGO is the first REST API fuzzing tool modeled in JastAdd.

First of all, This tool parses an OpenAPI specification (OAS) in Java classes and transfers it into AST-Node. These Nodes are able to be re-transformed and saved in JSON which describes its API Specification, if needed.

After the parsing phase, RAGO is prepared to generate tests automatically in two different ways based on Fuzzing, Random Testing and Parameter Inference.

OpenAPI Specification in JastAdd

OpenAPI specification (OAS) defines a standard, language-agnostic interface to RESTful APIs which allows both humans and computers and is represented in JSON or YAML. It consists of 30 objects and is structured in a tree-shape.

To understand better how OpenAPI documentations could be transformed in JastAdd, compare the following Object in the JastAdd-grammar and OpenAPI Object description

OpenAPIObject ::=   <OpenAPI> <JsonSchemaDialect> I:InfoObject Serv:ServerObject*
                    P:PathsObject* W:Webhook* C:ComponentsObject Sr:SecurityRequirementObject*
                    T:TagObject* [E:ExternalDocObject] Ex:Extension*;

There are some implementation details developers must consider:

  • JastAdd doesn't support Map. So, it must be constructed in a tuple (AST-Node). e.g.

    • ServerVariablesTuple ::= <Name> S:ServerVariableObject;
    • variables in Server Object
  • In OAS, several objects can be replaced by Reference Object. In RAGO, we implemented this structure in an abstract node to every concerned object. e.g.

Example of Parameter Object implementation

  abstract ParameterOb;
  ParameterReference : ParameterOb ::= <Ref> ...;
  ParameterObject : ParameterOb ::= <Name> <In> ...;
  • Most objects can be extended with Extension containing unfixed name and values. In JastAdd, this is also implemented in a tuple (AST-Node) Extension ::= <Key> <Value:Object>;

Fuzzing in RAGO

To generate API tests automatically, RAGO supports two following techniques based on Fuzzing which involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to an API.

In this first version, this tool considers only two request types, GET and POST, and parameters. It means that RAGO currently generates only URLs.

Random Testing

Random testing is based on the simple randomizer, RandomRequestGenerator. This generator reads an OpenAPIObject mapped by an OpenAPI documentation and checks all parameter types of operations existing in the OpenAPIObject.

Afterwards, RandomRequestGenerator knows which request needs which parameter type and generates random parameters for all requests and URLs appending these parameters.

Parameter Inference

Most tests based on the simple randomizing techniques are not effective because of low coverages and unusual validations. To observe more concrete test results, InferParameter generates tests automatically using random test results of RandomRequestGenerator.

Test results (responses) generated by RandomRequestGenerator are saved in a dictionary and utilized to infer parameters that might be usable in other requests.

If there is a same schema set in a request and a response, parameters of them are inferred by following strategies:

  • Case-insensitive
  • Id completion in a field name (e.g. if a property has a name "id", it gets an additional field name available in the specification)

Notice : Parameter Inference is an experimental fuzzing approach inspired by the Specification-based Approach1 and RESTTESTGEN2


  1. Hamza Ed-Douibi, Javier Luis Cánovas Izquierdo, and Jordi Cabot. “Automatic generation of test cases for REST APIs: A specification-based approach”. In: 2018 IEEE 22nd international enterprise distributed object computing conference (EDOC). IEEE. 2018, pp. 181–190 

  2. Emanuele Viglianisi, Michael Dallago, and Mariano Ceccato. “RestTestGen: automated black-box testing of RESTful APIs”. In: 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST). IEEE. 2020, pp. 142–152